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The New Peptide Complexes from Khavinson

What Khavinson Peptide complexes can do for your health.

The new Generation will be available in December 2020

The pool of regulatory peptides can be replenished from the outside. Polypeptide complexes renew cells and restore the functions of the corresponding organs, which leads to elimination of health problems, improvement of well-being and prolongation of active longevity.

Peptide Bioregulators Complex Products Information Presentation (2)

What does every living organism have?

What does every living organism have?

Heart? Nope. Blood? Nope. Brain? Still no. Every living organism has protein. Even viruses that do not have a cellular shell or other cell structures are surrounded by a layer of protein.

Where does the protein come from? Cells produce it, and the DNA molecule guides the process. It contains information about all proteins in the form of genes. Each living creature has an individual number of them. A person has approximately 22500 genes.

If all genes are active, which is almost impossible, the cell synthesizes all the proteins it needs. The natural ageing of the body and the harmful factors that people face almost every day damage part of the genes and they lose their activity. And then there are various disruptions – there is a lack of enzymes, hormones, the growth and division of cells slows down, and metabolic processes slow down.

The peptide bioregulators task is to get into the cell nucleus and join the necessary inactive DNA site. They operate on the key lock principle – each peptide fits only its own fragment. When DNA is activated, it transmits a signal to other cell structures that synthesize the right proteins.

By improving the function of each cell, peptides help improve the function of organs and entire systems. This is why the body is renewed and has the resources to live longer and have no health problems.

www.peptide-bioregulator.com

 

The New Generation of short Peptides “Peptide Complex-3 Peptides in 1 capsule”

The New Generation of short Peptides “Peptide Complex- “3 Peptides in 1 capsule”

by Khavinson Peptide Research

 

The intake of peptides rejuvenates organs at the cellular level, thereby improving their functionality.

Rapid wear of body systems occurs in the case of aging of cells with a simultaneous shortage of “building material” for the formation of new ones. It is at this moment that peptide bioregulators come to the rescue. These peptides purposefully bind with the corresponding DNA section, resume the production of the necessary proteins and normalize the functioning of the cells of organs and the body.

Such changes improve the condition of internal organs, increase the body’s immune responses and life expectancy. Thanks to modern extraction technologies and special purification methods, physiologically active peptides are used in the production of complexes. They have an extremely low molecular weight that helps them easily penetrate into the cell nucleus. In this form, pathogenic microorganisms or potentially hazardous substances cannot attach to peptides, which makes their use as safe as possible.

Bioregulators are short peptides that consist of 2-4 amino acids. They give a signal to the DNA molecule to start the synthesis of certain proteins if they are lacking in the organ.

New Peptide Complex Products Presentation 10 2020 (1)

 

Vladimir Khavinson Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences

Vladimir Khavinson
Professor, Doctor of Medical Sciences

– Member of the executive committee, Treasurer of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics – European region
-First vice–president of the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences
– Professor of the department of Gerontology and Geriatrics at the I.I. Mechnikov North -Western State Medical University
– Chief of the Department of the I.P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences
– Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine
– Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation
– Honored Inventor of the Russian Federation

https://khavinson-peptides.com/founder

 

Khavinon Vladimir was born in 1946 in Kottbus, Germany, into a family of a military officer. Having spent five years in Minsk secondary school No 6, in 1959 he entered Minsk Suvorov Military School and finished it in 1965 with gold medal. Khavinson was a champion of Minsk in boxing in 1964, and champion in track and field athletics of Byelorussia in 1965. In 1965 he entered S.M. Kirov Medical Military Academy (St.Petersburg), which he graduated in 1971 with a diploma in treatment and prevention.

From 1971 to 1977 Khavinson did military service in Trans-Baikal and Leningrad military districts. In 1977 he was appointed senior resident doctor at S.M. Kirov Medical Military Academy, in 1982 – junior research officer, in 1985 – senior research officer, in 1988 – Chief of the Research Laboratory of Bioregulators. In 1989 Khavinson established the State Biomedical Scientific and Production Complex “Cytomed” and was its General Director until 1992.

In 1978 Khavinson received the Candidate’s of Medical Sciences degree and in 1987 – the Doctor’s degree. In 1992 Prof. Khavinson founded the Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology. Since that time he is its Director. In 2001 the Saint Petersburg Institute was integrated into the North-Western Department of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

Prof. Khavinson is a Colonel of the Military Service in reserve. Now he is a veteran of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (since 1993).

In 2000 Prof. Khavinson was elected a Member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences in the field of “gerontology and Geriatrics” (North-Western Department of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences). In 2003 he became a Member of the Presidium of the North-Western Department of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. From 2002 to 2004 he was a professor of the Chair of gerontology and geriatrics of the Saint Petersburg Medical Academy of Postgraduate Studies of the Russian Ministry of Health. In 2007 he was appointed Main gerontologist of the Health Committee of the Government of St.Petersburg. Since October 2007 he is a Head of the Department of peptide regulation of ageing of the I.P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Prof. Khavinson has over 700 research publications, including 26 monographs (2 monographs were published in Sweden and Switzerland), 205 inventions in the field of gerontology, biotechnologies, immunology (including 90 international patents in the USA, Canada, Switzerland, Australia, Japan and Europe). Under his editorship and supervision 64 Ph.D. and Dr.Sci. applicants defended a thesis.

In 2000 initiatives and efforts of Prof. Khavinson made it possible to include a new specialty No. 14.01.30 “Gerontology and Geriatrics” (Medical and Biological Sciences) into the “List of Specialties” of the Highest Attestation Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. In June 2001 under the Decree of the Highest Attestation Committee the Dissertation Council (D 601.001.01) was established. In 2006 Prof. Khavinson was appointed into the Expert Council of the Highest Attestation Committee of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in medical sciences (Therapeutic Section).

In 1988 Prof. Khavinson was awarded honorary title “Distinguished Inventor of the Russian Federation”. In 1990 – “The USSR Council of Ministers’ Prize” for the introduction and promotion of new highly efficient peptide bioregulators for use in health care and veterinary professions. In 1991 Prof. Khavinson and co-authors were awarded “K.M. Bykov Award of the USSR Academy of Sciences”. In 1994 and 1997 he was awarded the State Scientific Grants of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

In 1996 Prof.Khavinson was awarded Nobel Prize Winner P.Kapitsa’ Memorial medal “Author of Scientific Discovery”, in 2003 – The Ukrainian Academy of Medical Sciences Prize, in 2006 – P.Ehrlich Silver Medal for outstanding achievements in preventive and social medicine, Europaische Akademie der Naturwissenschaften, Hannover, in 2007 – Award of the State Duma of the Russian Federation for the best project represented at the Economy Forum, in 2008 – Honorary title “Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation”. In 2010 – the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences Prize.

In 1994 he was elected Vice-President of the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1996 V. Khavinson was elected a member of the Italian Academy of Economics and Social Sciences and a member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences.

He is a member of Editorial Boards of the Journals: “Advances in Gerontology” (St.Petersburg), “Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine” (Moscow), “Clinical Gerontology” (Moscow), “Cytokines and Inflammation” (St.Petersburg), “Geronto-Geriatrics” (Mexico), “Herald of Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences”(St.Petersburg), “Medical Academy Journal” (St.Petersburg), “Neuroendocrinology Letters” (Stockholm).

In 2007 Prof. Khavinson was elected Chairman of the Biological Section of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, European Region.

In 2011 Prof. Khavinson was elected President of the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, European Region.

Regulation of gene expression with Khavinson peptides

Regulation of gene expression with Khavinson Peptides

It was revealed that fluorescein isothiocyanate -labeled (FITC) small peptides penetrate into cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the HeLa cell. It is known that the nucleus of eukaryotic cells has a system of nucleopores formed by protein complexes – nucleoporins. The inner diameter of the nucleopores is about 50 nm. Thus, they are permeable for the diffusing molecules with a molecular weight up to 3,5 kDa. Thus, small peptides by their physical-chemical characteristics, (charge, size, hydrophobicity) can penetrate the cytoplasmic and nuclear membrane of the cell and possibly interact with DNA.

According to the data obtained by physical methods (UV spectroscopy, circular dichroism, viscosimetry, atomic force microscopy) and molecular modelling; signal peptides are capable of binding to DNA in solution. This process takes several hours without almost any electrostatic force. The formation between the major groove of DNA with nitrogenous bases and peptide leads to a destabilization of the secondary structure of macromolecule. According to results from the spectrophotometry, in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum in the mixture of the peptide (AEDG and double-stranded DNA) there was registered a concentration-dependent hyperchromic effect (an increase in the optical density of the DNA solution at a wavelength of 260 nm). This hyperchromic effect proves that there is a partial destruction of hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide pairs of the double helix and local separation of the DNA chains (allosteric conformational change).

It was established through experiments that the separation of chains (melting) of free synthetic DNA occurs at a temperature of 69.50 C. Nevertheless in the DNA-peptide (AEDG) system this melting took place at a temperature of 280 C and was characterized by an almost two-fold decrease in the enthalpy and entropy values. This shows that there is a thermodynamically easier way to melt DNA strands at the temperature, which is adequate to the thermal regimes of biochemical processes in the majority of living organisms. It also shows that separation of DNA strands at physiological temperatures is not a denaturation, instead it is the initiation of protein synthesis process.

These theoretical and experimental data allowed to propose a model of peptide-DNA interactions in case of Khavinson peptides. Moreover these data enable to create a stable peptide-DNA complex. Analysis of the main physical and chemical parameters of this complex, (the number of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, energy of minimization of the DNA-peptide complex) was performed using molecular modelling. It allowed to determine quantitative characteristics of the DNA-peptide complex [Molecular Operating Environment; Chemical Computing Group Inc (2012) 1010 Sherbooke St. West, Suite #910, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3A 2R7, 2012]. Based on these calculations a three-dimensional model of the interaction of peptide AEDG with the DNA ATTTC site was created.

The experiments revealed a specific binding of peptides with oligonucleotides which may be particularly important for the epigenetic mechanism for regulation of gene expression. Interaction of small peptides, particularly with single stranded DNA regions, may specifically control expression of genes.

Short peptides were found to modulate the activity of wheat seedling endonucleases. This modulation of endonucleases activity probably happens due to the site-specific DNA-peptide binding which protects DNA against enzymatic hydrolysis. Then in turn, the modulation of endonucleases activity by peptides is modulated by histones. Chromatin histones in the nucleus may affect binding of DNA to small peptides. In addition, some peptides appear to control hydrolysis of DNA by endonucleases, at the level of interaction for a peptide with an enzyme.

It was revealed that small peptides activate heterochromatin in cell nuclei in elderly people and contribute to the ‘release’ of genes, repressed as a result of heterochromatinization of euchromatic regions of chromosomes that occurs with aging.

Structural condensation of chromatin is in close correlation with the functional heterogeneity. It was revealed that with aging the heterochromatinization becomes more intensive and this correlates with inactivation of previously active genes. Tightly condensed heterochromatic regions of chromosomes are genetically inactivated and have a slower replication. The decondensed (euchromatic) regions of chromosomes are always actively functioning. Regulatory peptides increase concentration of euchromatin in the nucleus. It means that more genes become available for transcription, which also occurs faster. As a result the protein synthesis also increases. The more euchromatin there is in the nucleus, the more intensive the protein synthesis in the cell is. The results of this experiment lead to the conclusion that heterochromatinization is a reversible process, with important biological outcomes.

It was revealed that administration of peptides KE and AEDG to transgenic mice caused a 2-3.6-fold suppression of HER-2/neu gene expression (human breast cancer) when compared to the control group. This suppression is accompanied by a significan treduction of the tumor diameter (Fig. 2).

It was shown that the addition of peptide AEDG to the cultural medium of human lung fibroblasts induces telomerase gene expression and contributes to a 2.4-fold lengthening of telomeres. Activation of gene expression is accompanied by a growing number of cellular divisions by 42.5% (Fig. 3). It was revealed that addition of tetrapeptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly to the cultural medium of human lung fibroblasts induces telomerase gene expression and contributes to a 2.4-fold lengthening of telomeres. Activation of gene expression is accompanied by a growing number of cellular divisions (by 42.5%), which is the evidence of Hayflick’s limit overcoming. This fact fully correlates with earlier stated maximum increase of animal life span (43,3%) after administration of this peptide.

The effect of peptides KE, EW, AEDG, AEDP on the expression of 15,247 murine heart and brain genes was studied with the employment of DNA-microarray technology. It was revealed that each peptide specifically regulates a particular group of genes. The result of this experiment strengthens the theory that peptides have a regulatory function for gene activity. It was also shown that the dipeptide KE, had an immunomodulating activity, regulating gene interleukin-2 expression in blood lymphocyte.

In the cell cultures of human bronchial epithelium, tetrapeptide AEDL activates the expression of genes of bronchial epithelium differentiation Nkx2.1, SCGB1A1, SCGB3A2, FoxA1, FoxA2. This peptide also increases expression of genes MUC4, MUC5АС, SftpA1, which reduces the frequency of chronic bronchitis. In the cell cultures of human pancreas tetrapeptide KEDW increased expression of differentiation genes PDX1, NGN3, PAX6, FOXA2, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4 and decreased expression of genes MNX1 HOXA3 Methylation profile of PDX1, PAX6, NGN3, NKX2-1, SCGB1A1 genes promoter regions in pancreas and bronchial epithelium cells changes with aging and under the influence of peptides which correlates with alterations in the levels of the genes expression. Methylation of gene promoter regions may be modulated under the influence of peptides. Promoter zone of gene FOXA2 in pancreas cells contains small number of methylated CpG-sites which methylation process changes with aging and is under the direct influence of peptide KEDW. The changes in the character of methylation of promoter zones may serve the reason for age-related and peptide induced alterations in the levels of PDX1, PAX6, NGN3 genes expression in pancreas cells and NKX2-1, SCGB1A genes expression in bronchial cells.

It was revealed that the tripeptide EDG regulates mRNA expression of various genes in the model of induced gastric ulcers in rats. Peptide EDG decreased synthesis of mRNA genes which encode cellular metabolism proteins SOD, TNFα, Cox-2.

Thus, specific (complementary) DNA-peptide interactions may have played an important role for the earliest stages of the origin of life and its evolution by epigenetic control of cell functioning.

Regulation of gene expression with Khavinson Peptides

Regulation of gene expression with Khavinson Peptides

 

It was revealed that fluorescein isothiocyanate -labeled (FITC) small peptides penetrate into cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus of the HeLa cell. It is known that the nucleus of eukaryotic cells has a system of nucleopores formed by protein complexes – nucleoporins. The inner diameter of the nucleopores is about 50 nm. Thus, they are permeable for the diffusing molecules with a molecular weight up to 3,5 kDa. Thus, small peptides by their physical-chemical characteristics, (charge, size, hydrophobicity) can penetrate the cytoplasmic and nuclear membrane of the cell and possibly interact with DNA.

According to the data obtained by physical methods (UV spectroscopy, circular dichroism, viscosimetry, atomic force microscopy) and molecular modelling; signal peptides are capable of binding to DNA in solution. This process takes several hours without almost any electrostatic force. The formation between the major groove of DNA with nitrogenous bases and peptide leads to a destabilization of the secondary structure of macromolecule. According to results from the spectrophotometry, in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum in the mixture of the peptide (AEDG and double-stranded DNA) there was registered a concentration-dependent hyperchromic effect (an increase in the optical density of the DNA solution at a wavelength of 260 nm). This hyperchromic effect proves that there is a partial destruction of hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide pairs of the double helix and local separation of the DNA chains (allosteric conformational change).

It was established through experiments that the separation of chains (melting) of free synthetic DNA occurs at a temperature of 69.50 C. Nevertheless in the DNA-peptide (AEDG) system this melting took place at a temperature of 280 C and was characterized by an almost two-fold decrease in the enthalpy and entropy values. This shows that there is a thermodynamically easier way to melt DNA strands at the temperature, which is adequate to the thermal regimes of biochemical processes in the majority of living organisms. It also shows that separation of DNA strands at physiological temperatures is not a denaturation, instead it is the initiation of protein synthesis process.

These theoretical and experimental data allowed to propose a model of peptide-DNA interactions in case of Khavinson peptides. Moreover these data enable to create a stable peptide-DNA complex. Analysis of the main physical and chemical parameters of this complex, (the number of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, energy of minimization of the DNA-peptide complex) was performed using molecular modelling. It allowed to determine quantitative characteristics of the DNA-peptide complex [Molecular Operating Environment; Chemical Computing Group Inc (2012) 1010 Sherbooke St. West, Suite #910, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3A 2R7, 2012]. Based on these calculations a three-dimensional model of the interaction of peptide AEDG with the DNA ATTTC site was created.

The experiments revealed a specific binding of peptides with oligonucleotides which may be particularly important for the epigenetic mechanism for regulation of gene expression. Interaction of small peptides, particularly with single stranded DNA regions, may specifically control expression of genes.

Short peptides were found to modulate the activity of wheat seedling endonucleases. This modulation of endonucleases activity probably happens due to the site-specific DNA-peptide binding which protects DNA against enzymatic hydrolysis. Then in turn, the modulation of endonucleases activity by peptides is modulated by histones. Chromatin histones in the nucleus may affect binding of DNA to small peptides. In addition, some peptides appear to control hydrolysis of DNA by endonucleases, at the level of interaction for a peptide with an enzyme.

It was revealed that small peptides activate heterochromatin in cell nuclei in elderly people and contribute to the ‘release’ of genes, repressed as a result of heterochromatinization of euchromatic regions of chromosomes that occurs with aging.

Structural condensation of chromatin is in close correlation with the functional heterogeneity. It was revealed that with aging the heterochromatinization becomes more intensive and this correlates with inactivation of previously active genes. Tightly condensed heterochromatic regions of chromosomes are genetically inactivated and have a slower replication. The decondensed (euchromatic) regions of chromosomes are always actively functioning. Regulatory peptides increase concentration of euchromatin in the nucleus. It means that more genes become available for transcription, which also occurs faster. As a result the protein synthesis also increases. The more euchromatin there is in the nucleus, the more intensive the protein synthesis in the cell is. The results of this experiment lead to the conclusion that heterochromatinization is a reversible process, with important biological outcomes.

It was revealed that administration of peptides KE and AEDG to transgenic mice caused a 2-3.6-fold suppression of HER-2/neu gene expression (human breast cancer) when compared to the control group. This suppression is accompanied by a significan treduction of the tumor diameter (Fig. 2).

It was shown that the addition of peptide AEDG to the cultural medium of human lung fibroblasts induces telomerase gene expression and contributes to a 2.4-fold lengthening of telomeres. Activation of gene expression is accompanied by a growing number of cellular divisions by 42.5% (Fig. 3). It was revealed that addition of tetrapeptide Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly to the cultural medium of human lung fibroblasts induces telomerase gene expression and contributes to a 2.4-fold lengthening of telomeres. Activation of gene expression is accompanied by a growing number of cellular divisions (by 42.5%), which is the evidence of Hayflick’s limit overcoming. This fact fully correlates with earlier stated maximum increase of animal life span (43,3%) after administration of this peptide.

The effect of peptides KE, EW, AEDG, AEDP on the expression of 15,247 murine heart and brain genes was studied with the employment of DNA-microarray technology. It was revealed that each peptide specifically regulates a particular group of genes. The result of this experiment strengthens the theory that peptides have a regulatory function for gene activity. It was also shown that the dipeptide KE, had an immunomodulating activity, regulating gene interleukin-2 expression in blood lymphocyte.

In the cell cultures of human bronchial epithelium, tetrapeptide AEDL activates the expression of genes of bronchial epithelium differentiation Nkx2.1, SCGB1A1, SCGB3A2, FoxA1, FoxA2. This peptide also increases expression of genes MUC4, MUC5АС, SftpA1, which reduces the frequency of chronic bronchitis. In the cell cultures of human pancreas tetrapeptide KEDW increased expression of differentiation genes PDX1, NGN3, PAX6, FOXA2, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, PAX4 and decreased expression of genes MNX1 HOXA3 Methylation profile of PDX1, PAX6, NGN3, NKX2-1, SCGB1A1 genes promoter regions in pancreas and bronchial epithelium cells changes with aging and under the influence of peptides which correlates with alterations in the levels of the genes expression. Methylation of gene promoter regions may be modulated under the influence of peptides. Promoter zone of gene FOXA2 in pancreas cells contains small number of methylated CpG-sites which methylation process changes with aging and is under the direct influence of peptide KEDW. The changes in the character of methylation of promoter zones may serve the reason for age-related and peptide induced alterations in the levels of PDX1, PAX6, NGN3 genes expression in pancreas cells and NKX2-1, SCGB1A genes expression in bronchial cells.

It was revealed that the tripeptide EDG regulates mRNA expression of various genes in the model of induced gastric ulcers in rats. Peptide EDG decreased synthesis of mRNA genes which encode cellular metabolism proteins SOD, TNFα, Cox-2.

Thus, specific (complementary) DNA-peptide interactions may have played an important role for the earliest stages of the origin of life and its evolution by epigenetic control of cell functioning.

Application of Khavinson peptides

Application of Khavinson Peptides

 

In a randomized comparative study which lasted for 15 years, in elderly people with premature cardiovascular aging, it was found that the administration of the medicinal peptide preparation ‘Epithalamin’ slowed down the rate of aging and decreased mortality. By the end of this period 16 of 40 patients in the control group (40%) and 26 of 39 patients treated with Epithalamin (66.7%) were leaving. A long-term application of ‘Epithalamin’ (6 courses over a period of 3-years), also slows down the aging of the cardiovascular system, preventing an age-related increase in the physical stamina, normalizing the diurnal rhythm of melatonin synthesis, as well as carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Treatment efficiency was evaluated by shifts in the following parameters: CVS functional age, threshold exercise power, total cholesterol, glucose concentration after overnight fasting and 2 hour after standard glucose tolerance test, plasma melatonin concentration. Threshold execise power (in W) was evaluated by bicycle ergometry using common diagnostic criteria. Cardiovascular system FA was evaluated by the method using mathematical formulas based on the threshold exercise power and haemodynamics at the peak of threshold exercise. The degree of CVS aging was calculated as the difference between functional age and actual age. Oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g glucose was carried out as recommended by the WHO. The geroprotective effect of pineal gland peptides is also confirmed by the decreased mortality rate, shown with the Kaplan-Meier survival curves (Fig. 5).

The peptide preparations of the thymus, (‘Thymalin’, peptides EW and KE) was shown to be effective in the treatment of many diseases and conditions associated with decreased cell immunity and phagocytosis after radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer patients. It also had an effect in many other clinical setting such as cases of acute and chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases, overuse of antibiotics, oppression of the regeneration processes in post-traumatic and postoperative complications, obliterating diseases of arteries, chronic liver or prostate diseases, and complex treatment of certain forms of tuberculosis. Application of “Thymalin” in different clinical studies improved immune functions significantly (increased amount of T-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes-helpers, enhanced reaction of lymphocytes blast-transformation in presence of phytoheamagglutinin and Concanavalin A were registered, as well as reinforced reaction of phagocytosis).

Peptide preparation ‘Cortexin’ is an extract from the cerebral cortex wich exerts a significant neuroprotective effect. This preparation improves memory, stimulates reparative processes and accelerates restoration of ceberal functions after stress. This preparation is also effective in the treatment of craniocerebral injury, cerebral circulatory disorders, viral and bacterial neuroinfections, encephalopathy of different genesis, acute and chronic encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. A particularly high efficiency of this peptide preparation was noted in elderly patients.

A remarkable clinical effect has been observed with the peptide ‘Retinalamin’, which is extracted from the retina of animals. This unique preparation is applied in patients with various degenerative diseases of the retina such as; diabetic retinopathy, involutional degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and other pathologies. Of particular importance is its ability to restore electrical activity of the retina, moreover this restoration usually correlates with an improvement of visual functions (vision acuity, fields of vision, electro-physiological investigation).

Another peptide preparation which is called ‘Prostatilen’ was extracted from animal prostate gland. This preparation is effective for treatment of chronic prostatitis, adenoma and complications after prostate gland surgery, as well as in different age-related prostate dysfunctions.

It should be emphasized that Khavinson peptides selectively bind to specific DNA sites in vitro. They epigenetically regulate expression of genes, (oncogenes, telomerase gene, interleukins genes, transcription factors genes) as well as the synthesis of proteins – markers of differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and increase the length of telomeres in somatic cells. These peptides furthermore increase the average lifespan, decrease tumour incidence in animals and decrease human mortality by maintaining endocrine, nervous and immune systems.

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