It is known that specific limit of animal and human lifespan is approximately 30-40% higher than their mean lifespan. It could be referred to the impact of adverse factors causing changes in the gene structure and expression accompanied by disorders in the protein synthesis and organism functioning Specific limit of human lifespan — 110–120 years.
Recent achievements in theoretical and applied gerontology allowed goal-seeking regulation of ageing-associated alterations.
Therefore, one of the priorities of gerontology today consists in prevention of premature ageing and age-associated pathology, finally aimed at the increase in an average lifespan, maintaining active longevity and reaching an upper limit of human life.
The integration of findings made by fundamental research into medicine resulted in a better understanding that clinical progress largely depends on molecular medicine, i.e. investigations conducted in genes and biologically active molecules. The achievements in genetics, molecular and cell biology often underlie molecular medicine in designing new pharmaceuticals and technologies.
The studying of genetic mechanisms of ageing is in the forefront of molecular medicine today. There have been defined. Potential increase in the average human lifespan up to the specific limit (biological reserve).
Genes which regulate mechanisms of individual development and the onset of diseases.
The influence produced on gene expression permits correction of cell proliferation and differentiation decreased with age.
The study of genetic mechanisms of ageing and development of age-related pathology underlies regulatory therapy — the employment of modulators of transcription, deterring and restoring genetically conditioned alterations occurring with age. It is important to know the genome, occurring disorders and to use substances producing selective effect on gene expression.
Designing of effective bioregulators which would contribute to the achievement of special life span limit and maintain major physiological functions constitutes a vital issue in modern Biogerontologie. Investigations in the problem focus on the role of peptides in prevention of premature ageing.
Peptidergic regulation of homeostasis occupies an important place in a complex chain of physiological processes leading to the ageing of cells, tissues, organs and an organism in whole.
Morphological and functional equivalent of ageing consists in the involution of organs and tissues, primarily those referred to major regulatory systems — nervous, endocrine and immune ones. The data available suggest occurrence of age-associated hypoplasia, and in some cases even an atrophy of the pineal gland, thymus, brain cortex neurons and subcortical structures, retina, vascular wall, genital organs.